Cannabis

FEBRUARY 11, 2018 EDITOR

The Marijuana Environment is Hazardous to Human Health

All creatures great and small are being poisoned by the pesticides and rodenticides in the water they drink, and in the food they eat. This polluted water from the northern California marijuana environment eventually flows to much of the State. The lawless pot industry is nothing less than purveyors of poison.

The recent scientific study “Cultivating Disaster: The Effect of Cannabis Cultivation on the Environment of Calaveras County,” points out that the cultivation of the drug was allowed by the State of California without adequate understanding of the impact on the environment and public health, welfare and safety. The chemicals that flow from the grow sites to the watershed had never been approved for these crops.

California classifies as an agricultural product. However, pot growers do not have to meet the same stringent requirements for chemicals and fertilizers as do all other farmers.  Local water providers conduct limited testing to see if dangerous chemicals are leaching into water supplies or waste treatment systems.

However, independent water experts tested water samples in Calaveras County.  They found that two-thirds of the samples contained chemicals proven to be deadly poison to humans, fish and animals.

For complete story

Roger Ladouceur – Canadian Family Physician February 2018

“The evidence indicates the most consistent effects of medical cannabinoids are adverse events. A variety of adverse events have a greater magnitude of effect than the potential benefits for the conditions targeted.1

The conclusions drawn by this analysis are not surprising. Study after study, analysis after analysis, and review after review2,3 have all reported the same findings: cannabis has little place within current therapeutic arsenals, except as a last resort in very specific situations or when nothing else has worked…”

The Canadian Family Physician

For complete article                                                                                                                                                   

  • New medical guidelines have been issued in Canada, where cannabis is legal
  • They warn the effects of the drug outweigh minor benefits for most conditions 
  • And for some, it states it most often is only marginally better than a placebo 
  • The new document will be distributed to 30,000 doctors in Canada

New medical guidelines issued in Canada, where cannabis has been legal for medicinal use since 2001, warns that the effects of the drug outweigh any minor benefits for the vast majority of conditions.

And in the few conditions where it can be helpful - for example as pain relief for multiple sclerosis - the impact is only marginally better than placebo.

The document, published in the Canadian Family Physician journal, warns doctors to 'take a sober second thought' before prescribing the drug.

By Ben Spencer Medical Correspondent For The Daily Mail PUBLISHED: 07:00 AEDT, 16 February 2018

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Received: 17 August 2017 /Accepted: 8 December 2017 - Springer Nature 2017

Abstract

Cannabinoid CB1 receptors (CB1R) and serotonergic 2A receptors (5HT2AR) form heteromers in the brain of mice where theymediate the cognitive deficits produced by delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol. However, it is still unknown whether the expression of this heterodimer is modulated by chronic cannabis use in humans. In this study, we investigated the expression levels and functionality of CB1R-5HT2AR heteromers in human olfactory neuroepithelium (ON) cells of cannabis users and control subjects, and determined their molecular characteristics through adenylate cyclase and the ERK 1/2 pathway signaling studies.We also assessed whether heteromer expression levels correlatedwith cannabis consumption and cognitive performance in neuropsychological tests. ON cells from controls and cannabis users expressed neuronal markers such as βIII-tubulin and nestin, displayed similar expression levels of genes related to cellular self-renewal, stem cell differentiation, and generation of neural crest cells, and showed comparable Na+ currents in patch clamp recordings. Interestingly, CB1R-5HT2AR heteromer expression was significantly increased in cannabis users and positively correlated with the amount of cannabis consumed, and negatively with age of onset of cannabis use. In addition, a negative correlation was found between heteromer expression levels and attention and working memory performance in cannabis users and control subjects. Our findings suggest that cannabis consumption regulates the formation of CB1R-5HT2AR heteromers, and may have a key role in cognitive processing. These heterodimers could be potential new targets to develop treatment alternatives for cognitive impairments.

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Received: 17 August 2017 /Accepted: 8 December 2017 - Springer Nature 2017

Abstract

Cannabinoid CB1 receptors (CB1R) and serotonergic 2A receptors (5HT2AR) form heteromers in the brain of mice where theymediate the cognitive deficits produced by delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol. However, it is still unknown whether the expression of this heterodimer is modulated by chronic cannabis use in humans. In this study, we investigated the expression levels and functionality of CB1R-5HT2AR heteromers in human olfactory neuroepithelium (ON) cells of cannabis users and control subjects, and determined their molecular characteristics through adenylate cyclase and the ERK 1/2 pathway signaling studies.We also assessed whether heteromer expression levels correlatedwith cannabis consumption and cognitive performance in neuropsychological tests. ON cells from controls and cannabis users expressed neuronal markers such as βIII-tubulin and nestin, displayed similar expression levels of genes related to cellular self-renewal, stem cell differentiation, and generation of neural crest cells, and showed comparable Na+ currents in patch clamp recordings. Interestingly, CB1R-5HT2AR heteromer expression was significantly increased in cannabis users and positively correlated with the amount of cannabis consumed, and negatively with age of onset of cannabis use. In addition, a negative correlation was found between heteromer expression levels and attention and working memory performance in cannabis users and control subjects. Our findings suggest that cannabis consumption regulates the formation of CB1R-5HT2AR heteromers, and may have a key role in cognitive processing. These heterodimers could be potential new targets to develop treatment alternatives for cognitive impairments.

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